NR 23 - FIRE PROTECTION
The fire protection is one of Regulatory Norms governing on additional safety rules and health provided for in art. 200 of the Labor Code. The article, specifically in section IV, provides for fire protection in general and the appropriate preventive measures, with the special requirements coating doors and walls, building walls against fire, dikes and other bulkheads, as well as general guarantee easy circulation, access corridors and large, protected outlets, with enough signage. All workplaces should have: a) fire protection; b) sufficient outlets for the rapid withdrawal of staff serving in the event of fire; c) enough equipment to fight the fire in its beginning; d) people trained in the proper use of this equipment.
Workplaces should have exits in sufficient number and arranged, so that those who are in these locations can leave them quickly and safely in an emergency. The minimum width of the outlet openings is expected to be 1.20 m (one meter and twenty centimeters). The door opening direction can not be into the workplace. Where it is not possible to get immediate access to the outputs, there should permanently and completely clear, internal circulation or continuous access corridors and safe, with a minimum width of 1.20 m (one meter and twenty centimeters). When you can not reach directly, the output ports, there should permanently in passing routes or corridors, with a minimum width of 1.20 m (one meter and twenty centimeters) always strictly clear. The openings, exits and passageways must be clearly marked by signs or traffic lights, indicating the direction of the exit. The outputs should be arranged so that between them and any workplace, fails to traverse distance greater than 15m (fifteen meters) in the high risk and 30m (thirty meters) of medium or small risk. These distances can be modified more or less at the discretion of the competent authority in safety, if sprinklers shower facilities, automatic, and according to the nature of the risk. Exits and traffic routes shall not include stairs or steps; the tickets will be well lighted. The floors at various levels, should be smoothly ramps the bypass, and in this case, must be placed a "Notice" at the beginning of the ramp in the direction of descent. Spiral staircases, hands or wooden external, will not be considered part of an exit.
DOORS - PASS CONDITIONS
The exit doors should be hinged or sliding horizontal doors, at the discretion of the competent authority in safety. Vertical doors, rolling and rotating are not allowed in internal communications. All hinged doors, both the output and the internal communications, should: a) open towards the exit; b) be placed such that, when opened, do not hinder the passageways. The doors leading to the stairs should be arranged so as not to decrease the effective width of these stairs. The exit doors must be so placed as to be visible, being forbidden any obstacle, even casually, that impede the access or your view. No front door, or output, or emergency establishment or workplace, is expected to close the key, bolted, or imprisoned during working hours. During working hours, they can be closed with safety devices that allow anyone open them easily from inside the establishment or place of work. Under no circumstances the emergency doors should be closed from the outside, even outside working hours.
All stairs, platforms and landings should be made with non-combustible and fire resistant materials.
Wells and hoists respective, in buildings of more than two (2) floors should be entirely of fire resistant material.
The stairway enclosures shall be provided with fire doors automatically closing up and can be easily opened by 2 (two) sides.
As early fire manifests itself, is responsible for: a) trigger the alarm system; b) immediately call the fire department; c) off electrical machines and apparatus, when the shutdown operation does not involve additional risks; d) attack you as soon as possible by appropriate means. Machinery and electrical appliances that should not be disconnected in case of fire should include notice board with respect to this fact, near the interruption key. May be required for certain types of industry or activity that is big risk of fire, special requirements of building, such as doors and fire walls or dikes around high flammable reservoirs.
Fire fighting exercises should be done periodically, in order: a) the serious personal meaning of the alarm signal; b) that the evacuation of the site is done in good order; c) the avoidance of any panic; d) specific duties and responsibilities to employees to be assigned; e) verification that the alarm siren was heard in all areas. The exercises should be performed under the direction of a group of people, able to prepare them and drive them, comprising a head and helpers in required number, according to the characteristics of the establishment. The alert exercise plans should be prepared as if for a real case of fire. In factories to keep teams organized fire department, the exercises should be performed periodically, preferably without warning and approaching, as far as possible the actual conditions of firefighting. Factories or establishments that do not maintain fire teams should have some members of the labor personnel as well as the guards and watchmen, especially trained in the proper handling of the fire fighting equipment and its use.
Will be adopted for the purpose of ease of implementation of these provisions, the following fire rating: Class A - are easily combustible materials with the property they burnt on their surface and depth, and leaving waste such as fabrics, wood, paper , fibers etc .; Class B - are considered flammable products burning only on its surface, leaving no waste, such as oil, grease, varnishes, paints, gasoline, etc .; Class C - when they occur in energized electrical equipment such as motors, transformers, distribution boards, wires, etc .; Class D - pyrophoric elements such as magnesium, zirconium, titanium.
EXTINCTION IN WATER MEDIA
In industrial establishments fifty (50) or more employees, there must be a suitable lock-pressure water in order to, at any time, terminate the Class of fire starts A. The water collection points should be easily accessible, and situated or protected so that they can not be damaged. The water collection points and the supply pipes must be tested frequently to prevent the accumulation of waste. The water will never be used: a) in the fires of Class B, except when sprayed in the form of fog; b) in the fires of Class C, except in the case of water spray; c) in Class D fires; The automatic sprinklers, known as "splinklers" should have their records always open and can only be closed in case of maintenance or inspection, to order the responsible person. A clearance of at least 1.00 m (one meter) must exist beneath and around the heads of showers in order to ensure effective flood.
In all establishments or workplaces should only be used fire extinguishers that meet the Brazilian standards or technical regulations of the National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality - INMETRO, ensuring that demand by putting in conformity identification device organ certification accredited by INMETRO.
All establishments, even those equipped with automatic sprinklers should be provided with portable fire extinguishers in order to fight the fire at its beginning. Such devices must be appropriate to the fire to extinguish class.
Table Fire extinguishers X Class Practice
INSPECTION OF EXTINTORES
All extinguisher shall have one (1) inspection control plug. Each extinguisher should be inspected visually every month, examining its external appearance, seals, gauges when the extinguisher is pressurized type, making sure the nozzle and relief valves are not clogged. Each fire extinguisher should have an identification tag attached to its core, with the date it was uploaded, date to recharge and identification number. This label should be protected properly to prevent such data from being damaged. The cylinders of the injected pressure extinguishers should be weighed every six months. If the weight loss is in excess of ten (10) percent of the original weight, should be arranged at a clearance. The extinguisher type "foam" should be recharged annually. The extinguishing of recharge operations should be made according to official technical standards in force in the country.
NUMBER OF EXTINTORES
In occupations or workplaces, the number of extinguishers will be determined by the following conditions established for a extinguishing unit:
|COVERED AREA P / EXTINTORES UNIT||FIRE RISK||OCCUPATION CLASS * According to Insurance Rate Fire of Brazil - IRB (*)||MAXIMUM DISTANCE to be covered|
|500 m²||Small "A"||#8220;A” – 01 and 02||20 metros|
|250 m²||East "B"||“B” – 02, 04, 05 and 06||10 metters|
|150 m²||Large "C"||“C” – 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 12 and 13||10 metters|
(*) Brazil Reinsurance Institute Regardless of the occupied area, there should be at least two (2) extinguishers for each floor.
EXTINTORES OF CAPACITY
EXTINGUISHERS THAT NUMBER
CONSTITUTE UNIT Extinguishing
10 liters 5 liters
|Pressurized Water or Gas Water||
|Carbon Dioxide (CO2)||
6 pounds 4 pounds 2 pounds 1 pound
1 2 3 4
|Dry Chemical Powder||
4 pounds 2 pounds 1 pound
1 2 3
LOCATION AND SIGNS OF EXTINTORES
Fire extinguishers should be placed in places: a) easy to see; b) easily accessible; c) where there is less likelihood of fire blocking your access. Premises for the extinguishers shall be indicated by a red circle or by a large arrow, red with yellow edges. It should be painted red a wide floor area under the extinguisher, which can not be obstructed by any way. This area should be at least 1,00m x 1,00m (one meter x one meter). Fire extinguishers shall not be your top over 1.60 m (one meter and sixty centimeters) above the floor. The buckets should not have their edges less than 0.60m (sixty centimeters) or more than 1.50 m (one meter and fifty centimeters) above the floor. Fire extinguishers shall not be located in the walls of the stairs. Fire extinguishers on wheels should be guaranteed free access to any factory point. The extinguishers shall not be hidden by piles of materials.
The high risk establishments or medium, there should be an alarm system capable of noticeable signs at all places of the building. Each floor of the establishment shall be provided with a sufficient number of points able to put into action the adopted alarm system. The bells or sirens will emit a distinct sound in pitch and height of all other acoustic devices of the establishment. Alarm activation buttons should be placed in public areas of access of pavements. The drive buttons should be placed in a visible place and inside boxes sealed with glass cover or plastic, easily breakable. This box should contain the inscription "Break in case of emergency".
Legal basis: NR-23;
Article 200 CLT;
Ordinance No. 290/1997 MTb and cited in the text.
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